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13 June 2015

The Success or Otherwise of Multiculturalism – What Really Matters

Surveys and polls concerning Islam and Muslims usually attract considerable press coverage but one we came across recently [1] was mentioned in only the Guardian [2] with the headline "Muslims are well-integrated in Britain – but no one seems to believe it". It might contain the most significant findings of all the surveys over the last few years.

This survey was carried out by Essex University and the results published in a report entitled "Britishness and Identity Assimilation among the UK’s Minority and Majority ethnic groups". [3] The sample details are impressive. It used data from a nationally representative sample of approximately 28,000 UK households with an additional ethnic minority boost sample of around 4000 households.

The report's summary says:

There has been extensive recent debate on the success or otherwise of ‘multiculturalism’. One key claim has been that multiculturalism has undermined minority groups’ willingness or ability to sign up to the national identity of the country in which they live.

National identification is widely regarded in the literature as an important indicator of the social cohesion within societies and to have implications for the incorporation or alienation of minorities.

.... We find first that minorities express strong British identities – stronger in fact than the White majority, and that these increase across generations.

Second we show that minority identification does not necessarily imply a loss of majority identity. Indeed the most common pattern in our sample of minorities was to hold strong majority and minority identities at the same time.

By contrast we show that among the White majority there is not only substantial variation in identification, but that with the exception of those born in Northern Ireland, individual country identities (Wales, Scotland, England) tends to be prioritised over British identities".

So, multiculturalism is a success. We are told.

The main question asked of all respondents was: “Most people who live in the UK may think of themselves as being British in some way. On a scale of 0 to 10 where 0 means ‘not at all important’ and 10 means ‘extremely important’, how important is being British to you?” . Respondents were shown a 10-point-scale and asked to identify their position on it.

Non-White respondents were also asked to report the strength of identification with their father’s ethnic group and also that of their mother’s ethnic group if that was different from their father’s, using a similar question format: “On a scale of 0 to 10 where 0 means ‘not at all important’ and 10 means ‘extremely important’, how important is being [your father’s ethnic group] to you?”

The answers were used to put minority ethnic respondents into one of four categories.

"Integrated" - high degrees of both own cultural maintenance and majority society engagement. “Assimilated” - loss of minority culture with the adoption of majority culture. “Separated” - exclusive maintenance of minority culture; and “Marginalized” - loss of minority culture but with no compensating gain or investment in majority culture.

The results obtained are illustrated in this Table:

Cultural Maintenance
Maximum of strength of identification
with parent's ethnic groups
HighLow
Contact Participation
Strength of identification
with being British
HighIntegrated
44%
Assimilated
13%
LowSeparated
22%
Marginalized
21%

Nearly half (44%) of British ethnic minorities identify as strongly with their ethnic identity as they do with being British. That is, nearly half, can be said to have in some degree a dual identity.

Of the remaining half, 22% are "separated" (they exclusively maintain their minority culture), and 21% are "marginalised" (they have lost their minority culture but taken nothing from the majority culture).

13% - just over one in 10 - are unambiguously British.

The Essex researchers take a positive, optimistic, view of these results. They also note, "By signing up to majority identity, minorities are .... providing evidence of acceptance of shared national values, and an implicit rejection of ethnic or cultural distinctiveness that may challenge that national consensus."

There is another line of thought. What happens if critical or too many "values" of the ethnic identity clash with the majority identity?

For example, the great majority of British people would probably agree that each person can decide his or her religion, or not to have a religion. You are not born into a religion. It is a choice you make. Apostasy is not a crime. We have struggled hard over the years to achieve the religious freedom and tolerance we have in Britain today.

In contrast to this British "value" see this BBC article "Ex-Muslim: My parents don't want me 'to burn in hell". [4] It describes the family rejection suffered by a young British Muslim girl because she no longer wanted to be a Muslim. At least, she didn't live in a Muslim country where apostates are threatened with death.

Unfortunately, the weaknesses of this Essex University study are also seen in the limited public debate that we have on this important subject. A sad example of how the relevant questions are avoided was given by a Muslim spokesperson recently interviewed about Islamic values versus British values on Sky News [5].

Yes, of course, Muslims are law abiding British citizens, he says, but don't expect Muslims to go out boozing on Saturday night. If that is the expectation there will be trouble! And, we are not going to eat pork!! British foreign policy gets dragged into the conversation too.

The Sky News interviewer failed to direct the interview. She let the Muslim interviewee pose the questions he wanted to answer not the questions that matter, that expose the clash of fundamental cultural values, though she might be excused as our senior politicians set a poor example. They steer clear of anything specific, anything that might be construed as a direct criticism of Islam, and labour generalities such as ".... freedom .... accepting personal and social responsibility, respecting and upholding the rule of law".

Agreement or otherwise on these points is what really matters.

# Men and woman are equal. All jobs and professions are open to women. Men and women have equal legal rights in all matters.

# Each person can decide his or her religion, or not to have a religion. You are not born into a religion. It is a choice you make.

# A person can leave their religion without fear of reprisal or punishment.

# Stoning, amputation, and flogging, are barbaric punishments with no place in the modern world.

# You can marry a person from another religion. They do not have to convert to yours.

# You can say, write, or draw, what you like as long as it does not call for violence against any person(s) or their property.

# Church/religion and state are separate.

# You have only one wife. Polygamy is illegal.

# Religious texts are subject to scientific and historical scrutiny.

# It is impolite, even rude, to cover your face in public, and it hinders communication.

# Rules and regulations should apply to everyone. Animals are stunned prior to slaughter.

Not all British people would vote strongly in favour of these values but it would be a reasonable bet that the median (the middle point of the results) for the white majority British population would lie much closer to the agreement end of the scale than the median for Muslims. Herein lies the clash of values.

The Essex study does not tell us if multiculturalism has been a success. All it does is give us a worrying measure of the scale of the challenge we face. Up to 87% (100% - 13%) of Muslims are potentially a source of social conflict. 13% is the dismally low proportion who so far have truly become British.

Notes

[1] Survey of Surveys - Concerning Islam & Muslims

[2] Muslims are well-integrated in Britain – but no one seems to believe it

[3] Britishness and Identity Assimilation among the UK’s Minority and Majority ethnic groups

See also: Just who does feel British?

[4] Ex-Muslim: My parents don't want me 'to burn in hell'

[5] Muhbeen Hussain and Dilly Hussain Discuss If British and Islamic Views Are Compatible?

01 June 2015

Survey of Surveys - Concerning Islam & Muslims

1.0 About this Survey of Surveys
2.0 Summary
3.0 Headline Results
4.0 Surveys - British Muslims
5.0 Surveys - British People (non-Muslims)
6.0 Surveys - Muslims in Islamic Countries
7.0 Surveys - Muslims in Western Countries
8.0 Surveys - International (non-Muslims)

1.0 About this Survey of Surveys

Surveys and polls concerning Islam and Muslims regularly hit the headlines.

Often alarming, sometimes reassuring, and difficult to put into context they can confuse more than illuminate. And, there is always the question of survey and poll quality.

This is a survey of such surveys from reliable sources published over the last five years or so, compiled with the objective of providing a clear picture and a convenient reference.

2.0 Summary

British Muslims

A large minority of British Muslims subscribe to values that clash with those held by the majority of British people. The proportion ranges from around 15% to 30% depending on the topic.

27% had some sympathy with the killers of the Charlie Hebdo staff. 11% believe those who publish images of Mohammed deserve to be attacked. 20% have some sympathy with young Muslims who leave the UK to join fighters in Syria.

29% would prefer to live in Britain under Sharia law rather than British law. 17% believe it is appropriate that Muslims who convert to other religions are cut off by their family and even worse 31% agree Muslim conversion to another religion is forbidden and punishable by death.

Muslims themselves see the divide. 16-20% say there is a clash between Islam and British values.

Much of the time this might not be apparent as large numbers maintain dual identities. 77% say they identify as strongly with Britain just as much as they do (75%) with their religion.

For ethnic minorities in general research has shown that 44% say they identify as strongly with their ethnic group as they identify with Britain. 22% hold entirely to their original culture. 21% have lost their original culture but have taken nothing of British culture. Only 13% are assimilated.

Dual identity is not necessarily a bad thing but when starkly conflicting values are involved it is a cause for concern.

British People

The majority British view of Islam and Muslims is strongly negative.

Over half (55%) believe there is a fundamental clash between Islam and British values and six in 10 (61%) have a negative or wholly negative view of Islam.

A large majority (81%) would support a ban on wearing of a full face veil or niqab in public places, such as schools, courts or hospitals. 71% believe the media should publish material even if it offends the religious views of some people.

The World's Muslims

On average, seven in 10 (70%) Muslims in the greater part of the Muslim world favour making Sharia the Law of the Land.

Of these, 58% favour whippings or cutting off the hands of thieves and robbers, 60% favour stoning as a punishment for adultery, and 53% favour the death penalty for apostasy. And, on average 43% of Muslims favour gender segregation in the workplace. It is as high as 85% in Pakistan.

Large minorities (10-30%) believe suicide bombing against civilian targets can be often or sometimes justified in order to defend Islam from its enemies.

It is difficult to find words that might qualify these horrendous results of surveys by the Pew Research Center, a highly reputable research organisation.

Knowledge and education topics also provide results alarming to modern people.

Nearly half (44%) of Muslims believe in creationism; humans and other living things have always existed in their present form. A staggering two in three (64%) deny that Arabs (Muslims) carried out the 9/11 attacks.

Muslims in Europe and Western Countries

In Germany more than one in five (22%) Muslims are against integration and reject German values. Over half of French Muslims say they will marry only another Muslim.

Nearly half (47%) of Canadian Muslims believe they should be free to choose to be ruled by Sharia courts in the case of divorce and other family matters.

Three quarters of Australian Muslims think counter-terrorism policing and laws unfairly target their community. Many of them explain terrorism as the result of "the history of occupation and invasion throughout the Middle East".

Western Views

On average in Europe's largest countries over half (54%) of Europeans believe Islam is incompatible with the Western world. Seven in 10 (69%) would approve a ban on veils that cover the whole face.

More than half (57%) of Germans believe Islam poses a threat to Germany. 52% believe it does not belong in German society. They see Islam as an "archaic religion, incapable of fitting into modern life".

Three quarters (74%) of the French think Islam is intolerant and that it is incompatible with the values of French society.

Half of Danish citizens favour a cap on the number of Muslims permitted to live in Denmark.

3.0 Headline Results

This section lists the publisher of each survey, the date of publication, and the headline results.

3.1 Surveys - British Muslims

Sky News, April 2015

Nearly one in five (16%) British Muslims believe British values are not compatible with Islam.

(This is in line with the findings of a survey for the BBC in February)

Four in 10 (39%) British Muslims believe the police and MI5 contribute to the radicalisation of young Muslims.

One in five (20%) have some sympathy with young Muslims who leave the UK to join fighters in Syria.

BBC Radio 4, February 2015

One in five (20%) British Muslims believe British liberal society can never be compatible with Islam.

More than one in four (27%) had some sympathy with the killers of the Charlie Hebdo staff. One in 10 (11%) believe those who publish images of the Prophet Mohammed deserve to be attacked.

And, one in 10 (11%) are sympathetic towards people who want to fight against western interests.

Nearly one in five (17%) believe it is appropriate that Muslims who convert to other religions are cut off by their family.

Understanding Society - University of Essex, December 2013

Nearly half (44%) of Britain's ethnic minority people say they identify as strongly with their ethnic group (and by implication with the values of that group's culture) as they identify with Britain.

Of the rest 22% are separate; they hold entirely to their original culture. 21% are marginalised; they have lost their original culture but have taken nothing from British culture.

Only 13% are assimilated. They strongly identify only with Britain and there is less potential for a clash with the values of their ethnic group.

Gallup – The Co-exist Foundation, 2009

British Muslims identify as extremely strongly or as very strongly with their religion (75%) as they do with Britain (77%).

British Muslims are much less inclined to see not wearing a veil (only 12% of them) and acceptance of comments about their faith which they deem offensive (9%) as necessary features of integration, than French or German Muslims.

Policy Exchange, January 2007

Three in 10 (31%) British Muslims agree Muslim conversion to another religion is forbidden and punishable by death.

Half (51%) agree a Muslim woman may not marry a non-Muslim.

Three in 10 (29%) would prefer to live in Britain under Sharia law rather than British law.

3.2 Surveys - British People (non-Muslims)

YouGov-Cambridge, March 2015

The majority (55%) of British people believe there is a fundamental clash between Islam and British values.

For Conservative voters the figure is 68%. For Labour 48%, and UKIP 89%.

Only one in five (22%) believe Islam is compatible with British society.

YouGov, January 2015

Six in 10 (61%) British adults have a negative or wholly negative view of Islam.

Sunday Times, January 2015

Seven in 10 (69%) of people believe it was acceptable for Charlie Hebdo to publish cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed.

Seven in 10 (71%) believe the media have an obligation to show controversial items that are newsworthy even if they may offend the religious views of some people.

Only one in 10 (11%) believe the media have an obligation to avoid offending religious views.

Channel 4 News, October 2013

Eight in 10 (81%) people would support a ban on wearing of a full face veil or niqab in certain public places, such as schools, courts or hospitals.

More than half (55%) would support such a ban in any public place.

BBC, September 2013

Six in 10 (60%) young British people (18 – 24 years-old) think Islam has a negative image. (For other religions it ranges from 11% to 17% thinking the religion has a negative image.)

Just over a quarter of young people (27%) do not trust Muslims.

Nearly half (44%) tend to agree or strongly agree that the Muslim community does not share the same values as people in the rest of Britain.

Sunday Times, May 2013

Six in 10 (60%) British people believe the great majority of Muslims are peaceful and law-abiding citizens but there is a dangerous minority.

One in seven (14%) think a large proportion of British Muslims feel no sense of loyalty to this country and are prepared to condone or even carry out acts of terrorism.

Half (50%) think a significant number of the leaders of Britain's Muslim communities are turning a blind eye to terrorism.

University of Nottingham, May 2013

Over half (59%) of British people agree or tend to agree there will be a "clash of civilizations" between Muslims and native white Britons.

(This followed the murder of Drummer Lee Rigby. Six months before the figure was 49%.)

63% agree or tend to agree the vast majority of Muslims are good British citizens.

45% think free speech in Britain is threatened by the influence of Muslims in the media

Chatham House, January 2013

Nearly half (49%) of British people agree or tend to agree there will be a "clash of civilizations" between Muslims and native white Britons.

Over half (52%) agree or tend to agree higher birth rates within Muslim communities pose a fundamental threat to British national identity.

Fewer than one in four (24%) think Muslims are compatible with the British way of life.

Extremis Project, September 2012

Nearly four in 10 (37%) would be more likely to vote for a party that promised to reduce the number of Muslims/presence of Islam in British society.

YouGov, April 2011

Two thirds (66%) of the public agree the burkha should be banned in Britain.

Searchlight Educational Trust, February 2011

More than two in three (68%) people think religion should not influence laws and policies in Britain.

Over half (52%) think Muslims create problems or a lot of problems. (For other religions it ranges from 7% to 15% thinking the religion creates problems or a lot of problems.)

Six in 10 (60%) think people should be allowed to say what they believe about religion, however critical or offensive it might be.

More than four in 10 (43%) would support a campaign to stop the building of a mosque near where they live.

3.3 Surveys – Muslims in Islamic Countries

Pew Research Center, July 2014

Large minorities (10-30%) in most large Muslim countries believe suicide bombing can be often or sometimes justified against civilian targets in order to defend Islam from its enemies.

University of Kirikkale and Happy Kids Association, April 2013

One in three (34%) Turkish men believe violence against women is "occasionally necessary".

Pew Research Center, April 2013

On average, seven in 10 (70%) Muslims in each county in the greater part of the Muslim world, favour making Sharia the Law of the Land.

Of these, 58% favour whippings or cutting off the hands of thieves and robbers, 60% favour stoning as a punishment for adultery, and 53% favour the death penalty for apostasy.

18% of all Muslims say suicide bombing attacks against civilians in defence of Islam can be often/sometimes justified.

Nearly half (44%) believe in creationism; humans and other living things have always existed in their present form.

Pew Research Center, July 2011

Nearly two in three (64%) Muslims deny that Arabs (Muslims) carried out the 9/11 attacks. Only one in five (20%) believe Arabs (Muslims) were responsible.

Over half (56%) of Muslims first consider themselves as a Muslim. Only one in four (25%) first consider themselves as being a particular nationality.

Only 23% of Westerners first consider themselves as a Christian. Two in three (65%) first consider themselves as being a particular nationality.

Well over half (59%) of Westerners believe Muslims in their countries want to be distinct from the larger society.

Pew Research Center, December 2010

On average 43% of Muslims favour gender segregation in the workplace. This ranges from 85% in Pakistan to 11% in Lebanon.

One in two (49%) Muslims favour whippings or cutting off the hands of thieves and robbers, 53% favour stoning as a punishment for adultery, and 48% favour the death penalty for apostasy.

On average 65% say democracy is preferable to any other kind of government. This ranges from 81% in Lebanon to 42% in Pakistan.

3.4 Surveys – Muslims in Western Countries

Australian Research Council, March 2015

Three quarters of Australian Muslims think counter-terrorism policing and laws unfairly target their community. This has generated a community backlash.

(A limited and biased knowledge of how the West and the Islamic world have interacted in modern times may have a lot to do with this attitude.)

Muslim Australians identify much more strongly with their religion than they do with being an Australian.

WZB - Berlin Social Science Center, December 2013

Islamic fundamentalism is widespread in Europe.

(Fundamentalism is defined as the return to eternal and unchangeable rules laid down in the past; the rules allow only one interpretation and are binding for all believers; and they have priority over secular laws.)

Two thirds (65%) of Muslim Turkish and Moroccan immigrants believe religious rules are more important to them than the laws of the country in which they live.

German Interior Ministry, March 2012

More than one in five (22%) Muslims in Germany are against integration.

Among those who are not German citizens this rises to nearly half (48%) who clearly reject German majority culture.

Among the 14 to 32-year-olds a subgroup of religious extremists holds anti-western views and are reportedly prepared to use violence. This group amounts to about 15% of Muslims with German citizenship and about 24% for Muslims who are not German.

Macdonald-Laurier Institute, November 2011

Nearly half (47%) of Canadian Muslims believe they should be free to choose to be ruled by Sharia courts in the case of divorce and other family matters.

This is belief is also very high, a third (33%), among Muslims who do not attend mosque regularly.

Online Muslim dating service, January 2011

Over half of French Muslims say they will marry only another Muslim.

3.5 Surveys – International (non-Muslims)

The Huffington Post, April 2015

More than half (55%) of Americans have unfavourable view of Islam.

Global News, March 2015

Most Canadians (88%) say faces shouldn’t be covered at citizenship ceremonies.

Heute tabloid paper, February 2015

Seven in 10 (69%) Austrians say "Islam does not belong in Austria".

Metroxpress, February 2015

One in two (50%) Danish citizens favour a cap on the number of Muslims permitted to live in Denmark.

Bertelsmann Foundation, January 2015

More than half (57%) of Germans believe Islam poses a threat to Germany.

Six in 10 (61%) believe Islam is incompatible with the Western world.

Scanlon Foundation and Monash University, October 2014

One in four (26%) Australians feel very negative or somewhat negative towards Muslims.

(This is five times greater than any negative feelings towards Christians or Buddhists.)

Stern Magazine, August 2014

Over half (52%) of Germans believe Islam "does not belong in German society".

Friedrich Ebert Foundation, March 2014

Over half (56%) of Germans consider Islam an "archaic religion, incapable of fitting into modern life".

Berlingske newspaper, October 2013

Danes: We are too tolerant of Muslims.

Bertelsmann Foundation, April 2013

On average in Europe's largest countries over half (54%) of Europeans believe Islam is incompatible with the Western world.

46% say it is very threatening or fairly threatening.

Le Parisien, March 2013

80% of French public favour tougher anti-veil laws

Le Monde, January 2013

Three quarters (74%) of the French think Islam is intolerant.

The same number think it is incompatible with the values of French society.

(In comparison, 10% think Catholicism incompatible and 25% think Judaism incompatible.)

University of Bielefeld, January 2013

Only 19% of Germans believe that Islam is compatible with German culture.

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, November 2012

German poll indicates a widespread fear of Muslims and Islam.

Association for Canadian Studies and the Canadian Race Relations Foundation, March 2012.

Half (52%) of Canadians distrust Muslims.

Canadians believe discrimination against Muslims is "mainly their own fault"

IFOP, February 2012

More than two in five (40-47%) in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK, say the presence of a Muslim community is a threat to their country’s identity.

About three quarters (65-77%) say Muslims are not very or not at all integrated.

More than one in three (34-47%) say the cultural differences are too great.

Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, March 2011

Half (47-60%) of Europeans say Islam is an intolerant religion.

Pew Research Center, July 2010

Seven in 10 (69%) Europeans approve a ban on veils that cover the whole face

4.0 Surveys - British Muslims

The sections above are the first three sections (the first 11pp of 120pp) of the report, "Survey of Surveys - Concerning Islam & Muslims". The full report is available only as a pdf.

If you would like a copy of the full report emailed to you simply email islamsurveyed[AT]gmail.com

The main sections of the report provide considerably more information on each survey and poll covered, including:

  • A tabular summary of all significant results as well as those mentioned above;
  • Further summary analysis and comment;
  • Survey details such as sample size and interview method;
  • Links to publishers' and research agency original reports and results;
  • Summaries of and links to media coverage, press comment and articles.

5.0 Surveys - British People (non-Muslims)

6.0 Surveys - Muslims in Islamic Countries

7.0 Surveys - Muslims in Western Countries

8.0 Surveys - International (non-Muslims)

10 April 2015

More Than Half Of Americans Have Unfavorable View Of Islam, Poll Finds

More than half of Americans say they have unfavorable views of Islam, and six in 10 either aren't interested or don't know whether they want to learn more about the faith, according to a new poll.

Younger Americans are the most likely to have positive views on Islam, be interested in learning about the religion and have Muslim friends.

The findings, detailed in a HuffPost/YouGov poll on Americans’ views of Muslims released Friday as part of HuffPost Religion’s week-long Muslim Life in America series, show a nation of fractured opinions and experiences when it comes to Islam, with stark differences among age groups and political affiliations.

Overall, 55 percent of Americans had either a somewhat or very unfavorable view of Islam, while one in four said they were not sure how they viewed the faith. Just 7 percent said they had a very favorable view of the religion, and 14 percent said they saw it somewhat favorably. [The Huffington Post] Read more

Poll: Majority Have No Sympathy With Extremists

An exclusive poll suggests most Muslims think families are most responsible for stopping young people joining groups like IS.

More than a third of British Muslims say the actions of the authorities are contributing to the radicalisation of young people, according to an exclusive Sky News poll.

Some 39% of Muslims who were asked said the authorities, including police and MI5, were a factor in radicalising the younger generation, compared to 29% of Muslims who said they were not.

The research found the issue of young people travelling to fight with extremist groups, including Islamic State, or becoming so-called 'jihadi brides', remains highly controversial.

.... We asked 1,000 Muslims and 1,000 non-Muslims to share their opinions and found that while 71% of Muslims in the UK said the values of British society were compatible with those of Islam, 16% believed they were not.

[TOP RATED COMMENT ] Color me shocked.

[ANOTHER] So actually 29% of British Muslims (i.e. nearly one million Muslims) DON'T believe UK life is compatible with Islam. Surely that should be the headline!

[ANOTHER] Not integrated or assimilated and most Muslims don't want to be and thats the sad truth about people. The sad truth is that they have come to live in a free and open society but they form their own little ghettoes until it becomes like the medieval hole they came from?

As their numbers grow they seem to get more and more emboldened demanding special treatment and even different laws to live under [Sharia] and people in this country are getting a little bit fed up of them now and i mean Christians,Hindus,Jews and other faiths who rub along together with no issues. My fear is as their numbers increase their will at some time in the future be a flash point and civil unrest will ensue?

[ANOTHER] What absolute garbage! Yet again everyone else is to blame for everything EXCEPT the poor Muslims.

[ANOTHER] Of course it's the fault of the police..... Muslims never do anything wrong.

[ANOTHER] I would love to know exactly who (which NON mozlem population demographic) was targeted and where this survey was conducted. I would wager it was not conducted in Oxford, Rochdale, Rotherham or one of the cities or towns where the pakistani and other mozlem paedophile gangs have mass raped NON moslem British children or areas where izlamist thugs parade up and down demanding sharia law and special treatment for this insular minority group.

Once again we see the race card appear, use of the blame game and denial of the facts by mozlems in the UK. By far, most terror attacks and plots, atrocities are carried out across the world by the followers of the cult of izlam.

Large numbers of young "educated" mozlems,often from prominent families in the UK glorify and admire these murders and acts of cultural annihilation of other belief systems and justify this because their quran tells them to do it.

Even more disturbing is the desire amongst these "young educated mozlems" from Britain to join terror groups like ISIS etc. I wholly disagree with this "surveys" results and suggest the problem of radicalisation of mozlems in the UK lies 100% in the adherence to the texts of their quran and the what they are taught in their homes and mosques.

[ANOTHER] If Muslims don't like it in Britain there are plenty of other countries they can go to.

[ANOTHER] 16% should leave the UK then. That would be a start.

[ANOTHER] Well obviously the 52% should not be here, they should be in an Islamic country that suits their needs. I'll help them

[ANOTHER] Aren't they precious. Is there anything else they'd like us to change to suit them?

[ANOTHER] Simple solution: You have a problem with how we do things in the UK, we will pay, out of the public purse, for a one way flight for you to go to any country you want, and we'll keep your British passport here (if you have one).

I'd be happier for my tax money to go on that than almost any other public service I can think of.

[ANOTHER] Poor Sky, still distracted by the 'moderates' who mean absolutely nothing in the equation of civilisational differences.

It isn't the 3/4 Muslims who we are worried about. It is the one quarter of their ever growing population who are riding on the back of the entire religions level of devout fundamentalism, to establish Islamic extremism, that we are worried about. It is the 89% of Muslims in Pakistan who say they want the death penalty put in place for leaving the religion [PEW poll 2013] who we are worried about.

It is the upwards of 70% of Muslims in Egypt who also want the death penalty put in place for leaving Islam who we are worried about. It is the Saudi funded mosques and the silencing of all debate that we are worried about. It is our governments and their fear of being called 'Islamophobic' that we are worried about.

Islam has to be reformed. How will it be reformed if we accept it as it is, don't demand reformation and instead pretend there is nothing bad coming from its current spread?

Islamism is displacing and murdering hundreds of thousands of Christians right now, and all's the likes of Sky News can do is tell us there is no problem.

Why didn't you challenge these non-fundamental Muslims to speak out and protest against the Imams who are preaching fundamentalism? Why is it left to the likes of the EDL to demand change within Islam?

[ANOTHER] The koran encourages muslims to lie about their religion to non-muslims. Islam is not religion of peace, it's a religion of conquest. The only difference between an extremist and a "moderate" is a matter of patience. [Sky News] Read more

Poll reveals over a third of Muslims believe security services play role in radicalisation of young Muslims

The polls reveal some interesting findings on who young Muslims feel is contributing to radicalisation. According to the results, 38.9% of Muslims agreed with the statement “The actions of the police and MI5 are contributing to the radicalisation of young Muslims”. Those disagreeing that the police and MI5 were contributing to radicalisation was under a third, at 28.8%.

Earlier this year, the human rights campaign group, CAGE, argued that harassment by security services played a role in the radicalisation of Mohammed Emwazi, the student from London identified as “Jihadi John”, responsible for killing hostages for Islamic State. For making a causal link with perceived abuse by state authorities and radicalisation, CAGE, were widely condemned as “apologists for terror”. From the survey results, it would seem around 40% of British Muslims are also “apologists for terror”. [MEND] Read more

Poll: Majority Have No Sympathy With Extremists

.... The results found younger Muslims were more likely to see their values aligned to those of Britain, with 73% of those aged 18 to 34 agreeing, compared to 71% of those aged over 55.

Male Muslims were also more likely to agree - 78%, versus 64% for females.

On the issue of integration into UK society, the survey found 58% of non-Muslims believed their Muslim neighbours were not doing enough, with those aged over 55 more likely to be critical.

Two thirds of Muslims, however, said they were doing enough.

Anjum Anwar, one of the Muslims questioned in the survey, told Sky News: "Are we talking about integration or assimilation? That's the problem, because I see integration happening." [Sky News] Read more

MI5 and police partly to blame for radicalisation – say four in 10 British Muslims

Four in 10 British Muslims believe that police and MI5 are partly responsible for the radicalisation of young people who support extremists, new polling has found.

A survey commissioned by Sky News, also found that more than a quarter of British Muslims have some sympathy with those who have left to join fighters in Syria.

Among Muslim women and those under the age of 35, the figure rises to a third.

While almost three quarters of Muslims polled said they believe the “values of British society” are compatible with those of their religion, one in seven said they were not.

But the polling of 1,000 Muslims and 1,000 non-Muslims by Survation, also pointed to a growing sense of alienation between members of Britain’s fastest growing faith group and wider society.

A third of Muslims said they experience more suspicion from others than a few years ago.

The perception is backed up by polling of non-Muslims, of whom 44 per cent – and 49 per cent of men – admitted they were more suspicious of Muslims than they were.

Strikingly, only one in five (22 per cent) of non-Muslims saw Islam as compatible with British values, with just over half saying it is not. [The Telegraph] Read more

03 April 2015

Shocking Survey Results From Australia

Introduction
A Great Fallacy and a Sense of Being Under Siege
The Media is Unfair - What About the Christian Terrorist(s)?
Don't Call Me a Moderate
Attitudes Towards Terrorism and the War on Terror
Identity
Treatment of Australian Muslims
Opinion of Terrorism and Jihad
Opinion on Foreign Policy
Profile of Australian Muslims
Conclusion
Notes

Introduction

Three quarters of Australian Muslims think counter-terrorism policing and laws unfairly target their community according to a new study funded by the Australian Research Council. [1] Muslims in Australia feel under siege. This has generated a community backlash.

The authors say the findings show what the Australian authorities can do to minimise these impacts and generate community cooperation with counter-terrorism strategies.

The police should treat Muslims with respect, impartially, in a trustworthy manner, and give them an opportunity to have a say in counter-terrorism policing. This way Muslims are more likely to trust the police, less likely to feel under siege, and more willing to co-operate.

There is more to the study than this. A lot more.

The study is based on field work of 14 focus groups, totalling 104 participants, and a survey of 800 face-to-face interviews with Muslims living in Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne. [2]

Part 1 – What Muslims Think

A Great Fallacy and a Sense of Being Under Siege

The focus groups provide examples of what Australian Muslims typically have to say, verbatim comment, about their views and feelings. It gets off to a good start.

The very first verbatim comment in the opening section is:

".... we need to separate Islam and separate it from people because these al Qaeda and whoever else, they’re the ones who are saying they’re Muslims and doing these acts, but a true Muslim wouldn’t do that ...."

"... and that’s why I think it sounded to me that these events September 11, the London bombings, all the things that are coming…making people think that Muslims all around the world believe in these acts and follow them, we’re all evil, but in actual fact, doesn’t have to be like that, and these groups and whoever else, all they’re doing is causing us grief" (female).

Focus group participants spoke about an atmosphere of fear and suspicion towards Muslims they experienced in their day-day interactions. Several examples are given. One participant remembered how his friend had told him that his non-Muslim neighbour's son stopped coming to play after 9/11. One young female participant recalled "a couple of weeks ago, I had a customer tell me that he'd rather be served by an Australian".

The qualitative survey following the focus groups asked no questions to give a measure of the extent of these experiences.

A sense of Muslims being under siege and attack was expressed in a variety of ways.

"Why is the world against us, why are we seen to be the bad people?...God does not accept people blowing themselves up in the name of God. .... The whole notion is to destroy Islam and its followers. The whole world is against us." (female).

For some participants it reflected a long history of persecution against Islam and was interpreted as part of a broader effort by governments to suppress Muslims.

"...it's the same old story of them just lop siding the news and just singling out the Muslims because you [i.e. western governments] simply don't like them."

The study provides no elucidation of this belief in a "history of persecution". The historical dimension of some of the results is discussed below.

The Media is Unfair - What About the Christian Terrorist(s)?

The focus groups concentrated on a number of topics including the "Media". There was a strong belief across the groups that media reporting exacerbated the stigmatisation of Muslims. A male participant said:

"I think the media has a big impact on the Muslim community here. Every time we watch media, they associate Islam with the terrorism, they say Islamic terrorism, Islamic terrorism, Islamic terrorists. They don’t say Christian terrorists, they don’t say for example like Jewish terrorist, although we have seen lots of Christians they are doing terrorist acts… they want to show that Muslim and Islam is a source of terrorism, so this has a big impact on the way people are thinking."

And another said: "I think the media is very hypocritical….You get a guy in Norway [in reference to Anders Behring Breivik, who killed 77 people in Norway in 2011] who kills so many people and he’s just sick, he’s not – whereas if it was a Muslim guy it would have been he’s a terrorist."

As invidious as it is one has to ask just how many Christian terrorists are there compared with Muslim terrorists? How many Breiviks have there been? Is there a trans-national Christian organisation such as al Qaeda responsible for terrorism on an industrial scale?

The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) [3] gives a wide definition to terrorism: "the threatened or actual use of illegal force and violence by a non-state actor to attain a political, economic, religious, or social goal through fear, coercion, or intimidation".

Worldwide there are thousands of causes and organisations involved in such violence. In a high proportion of incidents the perpetrator is simply listed as "unknown" and it is easy to come up with a variety of statistical conclusions, but what is very clear is that in 2012 and 2013, for example, the major proportion of terrorist outrages occurred in Muslim or predominantly Muslim countries, 74% of 8440 incidents in 2012 and 76% of 11,952 in 2013. There is good reason to associate the label "terrorist" with Islam.

Concentrating on large scale "terrorism" (like blowing up an aircraft) carried out for a religious reason or with a religious justification in the shape of attacks on innocent civilians in Western countries or places frequented by Westerners, Islam wins handsomely.

Focus group participants also complained generalisations made in the media about Islam and terrorism, distorted the fact there were many different denominations and “branches” of Islam, all of which did not interpret or practice Islam in the same way.

It would be interesting to know what they meant by this. Are they trying to say that some interpretations of Islam permit violence ("terrorism") to further Islamic objectives? This would of course be at odds with the "no true Muslim" explanation mentioned above. Table 4 in the next section shows 26% of Australian Muslims believe the concept Jihad in Islam supports use of violence as a means to an end.

Don't Call Me a Moderate

Australian Muslims don't like the "moderate" label. The term is often used to mean Muslims who are anti-terrorist but when used by the media, governments or police, it can give the impression Muslims are being told how they should practice Islam. As one participant put it:

"When I hear the word - the term moderate Muslim, it makes me think of a lazy Muslim. . .... So to call us moderate Muslims is a bit of in your face and it’s something that’s not appreciated by the majority of Muslims" (male) .

And another: "I do think it's unhelpful, because I identify as a Muslim. I don't identify as a moderate Muslim. I identify as Muslim, period. I identify as Muslim because I understand that Muslim - sorry, Islam - teaches me peace and it teaches me to be a good person and to conduct my way - myself in a way that is fair to everybody around me, fair to myself. So yeah, it's just - I think it's an unnecessary label, again" (female).

It would have been useful here to say more about the meaning of "moderate". Terrorism can be viewed as violence in the cause of big things, such as the removal of infidels from Muslim lands, the declared objective of al Qaeda. Some Muslims also believe in and practice violence in regard to "small things" on a human scale; flogging as a punishment, amputation for theft, death for apostasy, death for blasphemy, stoning for adultery, etc.

To most non-Muslims the term moderate means these ancient violent practices have been dropped. Would Australian Muslims be happy to be called moderate in this case or are they, as "regular" Muslims, in favour of, for example, the 1000 lashes being administered to Raif Badawi, the Saudi blogger, for ridiculing Saudi Arabia’s religious police and insulting Islamic religious figures. [4]

Attitudes Towards Terrorism and the War on Terror

The study aimed to understand how the Muslim community felt about terrorist groups and events such as 9/11, 7/7, the Bali Bombings and other high profile terrorist events and whether they believed Islamists distort the Islamic religion, and what they saw as motivating their actions.

Participants were adamant that terrorists who called themselves Muslims were distorting the meaning of Islam as a religion of peace. As one respondent stated: “They weren’t practicing Muslims.”

Other comments included: "These guys [terrorists] are minorities. They don't speak on behalf of one point something billion Muslims around the world. You know what I mean?" (male).

“There are a lot of people that are doing these things [in reference to terrorism] are obviously not true Muslim because as earlier we spoke, Islam means peace, so if anybody says that I’m a Muslim and goes to war and does things like that, is really a non believer” (female).

"...a person cannot commit suicide and blow themselves up and other innocent people up it’s completely, haram, suicide is haram, and the scholars have absolutely condemned it, so I mean that’s wrong" (female).

The "no true Muslim" belief runs very deep.

The response to the question “what motivates individuals or groups to commit terrorist acts” is equally strong.

In the opinion of participants the act of terrorism could not be divorced from broader events that fuelled resentment and frustration among Muslim populations. These events included:

[1] The Israel and Palestine conflict and the death of Palestinians due to what respondents regarded as Israeli aggression and unwillingness on the part of the international community to sanction Israel.

[2] The death of Muslims in wars such as Iraq and Afghanistan, and

[3] The lack of public and political outcry shown towards Muslim victims of overseas conflicts and government oppression compared to other religious on non-religious groups.

The quote below from a young female Muslim, sums up these sentiments expressed across the focus groups and the level of frustration they evoked:

".....a lot of it is political and it's - you have to - you can't just go from one thing and say, that's why it's started. So you can't just start from September 11 and say, oh, September 11 happened and that's when it started. Yeah, we have to really look back into history and look at the history of occupation and invasion throughout the Middle East, which resulted in September 11."

".... it's really interesting how since September 11 happened till now, every year it's always - people remember it .... and say that we lost so many people. But people - the invasion of Iraq does not - there is no such thing about, oh, maybe we did kill millions of people, not 1000, millions ... no one talks about that. Maybe we should commemorate that loss and that invasion day. Nope, you never hear that."

"About Afghanistan, more than 30 years of occupation and invasion throughout history from different countries. You never hear about that. That's the injustice. That's where injustice happens and that's when you feel a lot of - I feel, inside, I feel that there's a lot of - what's the word? There's like I'm boiling from inside. It infuriates me" (female).

A male participant also summed it up well: "Every terrorist act we need to think what is the reason behind that first of all, the oppression against Islam everywhere around the world, every Muslim country has been attacked in the world from [inaudible] and now Syria and Libya, and after all the Muslim countries in a mess because of the western countries, so they play a big role" (male).

All this displays a shocking ignorance and a strikingly one sided view of history. The present writer in a few words here is not going to throw any new light on the Israel and Palestine conflict, but it's worth a few remarks on the big picture to counter a belief in a "history of occupation and invasion throughout the Middle East", and the deaths of "millions" of Muslims caused by or at the hands of outsiders.

The Islamic world including the Middle East has governed itself since the mid-sixties, and the invasions, occupations, and Muslim deaths since then have been overwhelmingly the work of Muslims themselves. Here are a few examples: Pakistan and Bangladesh (1,250,000 deaths); the Iran-Iraq war (1,000,000); Saddam against minorities (300,0000); Kurds in Iraq, Iran, Turkey (300,000); Islamists and Algerian government (200,000); Invasion of Kuwait (140,000); the Lebanese civil war (150,000).

There is a range of estimates regarding the Iraq war since 2003 and the ensuing insurgencies and civil conflicts. Respectable sources do not run into "millions". The greatest number of deaths is the result of Muslims fighting amongst themselves for tribal or religious reasons.

Further research to establish if the views of Australian Muslims are based on any reasonable reading and knowledge of the facts, and their reactions to other historical accounts would be helpful. [5] How much of their outlook is the result of cultural baggage rather than genuine historical knowledge?

"Ignorance of History Fuels Australian Muslim Backlash Against Counter-Terrorism Laws" would be a reasonable headline for a report on this study.

If they had a better grasp of history, would they be more inclined to understand and support the Australian counter-terrorism policing and laws? Perhaps the Australian government should undertake a public education campaign. Perhaps that would be just as effective as polite and civilised policing.

The above is worrying but there is worse.

For a minority of participants the "war on terror" arises from "manufactured events" being used by governments and powerful interests to discredit Islam and further justify the singling out of Muslim communities. These sentiments were particularly pronounced among young participants.

The comment below reflects this theme and its relationship to the ongoing perception that rose throughout the focus groups that Islam was under attack:

"But first, can we confirm that these people committed these crimes. How do you know that some Zionist movement or American people haven’t paid their people to commit these crimes [in reference the September 11 attacks] in the name of Islam to show how bad we are?"

"We must create a balanced view and all terrorist crimes can be confirmed that Muslims committed them. September 11 attacks to me are very suspicious, when you hear that many hundreds of people where [sic] not in the building at the time of the planes crashing into them. .... I really hate what is going on at the moment, as we, the Muslims are being targeted every single day, people are looking down at us, they hate us, we always have to give reasons to why this happened" [in reference to acts of terrorism] (male).

Any society produces eccentrics, nutcases, and people with strange beliefs, and usually they can be ignored, but here the authors of this study go to the trouble of drawing our attention to what this "minority of participants" has to say. A significant number of Australian Muslims think like this.

Truly, a shocking result.

And as if to rub it in the March 23 edition "The Age", an Australian newspaper, carries the news that the principal of Victoria's largest Islamic school told students not to join Islamic State because it is a plot by Western countries. He told the newspaper he believed IS was a scheme by Israel and America to control oil in the Middle East. Unbelievable, except it backs up the findings of this study. [6]

Part 2 – How the Numbers Add Up

This section summarises results from the 800 face-to-face interviews with Muslims living in Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne. The aim of this part of survey was to assess how Muslims in Australia see themselves in society and how they believe others in society view them. The Tables show the percentage of Muslims giving a particular reply to a question. [7]

Identity

Muslim Australians identify much more strongly with their religion than they do with being an Australian.

Table 1 shows pride in being a Muslim has the edge over pride in being an Australian. And Table 2 shows seeing oneself as a Muslim first clearly beats seeing oneself as an Australian first.

Table 1
I am proud to be:Strongly
Disagree
DisagreeNeitherAgreeStrongly
Agree
An Australian02144837
Muslim0023960

Table 2
I see myself as aStrongly
Disagree
DisagreeNeitherAgreeStrongly
Agree
Muslim First0263359
An Australian First422212528

Treatment of Australian Muslims

More than half of Australian Muslims think they are treated fairly at work, at school and by the authorities. There is a degree of reserve associated with this, not many going for "very fair" just "fair" and a quarter staying neutral.

A clear majority think they are treated unfairly in the media.

Table 3
How Fairly Do You Think Muslims Are Treated?Very
Unfair
UnfairNeutralFairVery
Fair
At Work or in School311274317
When Dealing With Authorities312293917
In the Media3227122010

Opinion of Terrorism and Jihad

21% think terrorists sometimes have valid grievances, but more interesting is the 26% who think "the concept of Jihad in Islam supports use of violence as a means to an end" and the 25% who say Jihad is more than a "personal struggle for righteousness".

This suggests a quarter or so of Muslim Australians believe the use of violence is justified in furthering the aims of Islam. So much for the "religion of peace" and the "no true Muslim" conceit.

Table 4 - Here are some statements that describe different views on terrorism and the Muslim religion
What most closely resembles your own view?Strongly
Disagree
DisagreeNeitherAgreeStrongly
Agree
Terrorists sometimes have valid grievances323514156
Islam is often misinterpreted as a religion that advocates violence0123067
The concept of Jihad in Islam supports use of violence as a means to an end2832151610
Jihad is solely a personal struggle for righteousness322273513
Jihad is a militarized struggle that can be conducted by individuals6329521

Opinion on Foreign Policy

Over a third (36%) of Muslim Australians believe the "war on terror" is a "war on Islam". It seems however polite the police are it will not earn the support of these Muslims for Australia's counter-terrorism laws and procedures.

Table 5 - Here are some statements that describe some people’s views of Australia’s international policies
What most closely resembles your own view?Strongly
Disagree
DisagreeNeitherAgreeStrongly
Agree
Australia made the right decision to align itself with the US with respect to military force in Afghanistan27531551
Australia made the right decision to align itself with the US with respect to military force in Iraq3453941
The War on Terror is a War on Islam3022122412

Profile of Australian Muslims

The survey also collected demographic and profile data of the sample which the organisers of the study had gone to considerable lengths to make representative of Australian Muslims. Table 8 delivers one more shock.

English is not the main language spoken at home for well over a half (57%) of Australian Muslims. This is a stark indicator of the troubling gap between many of Australia's Muslims and the rest of the Australian people.

It suggests other questions that should be explored. If they speak Arabic at home do they get their news from Arabic sources? Do they take in the poisonous propaganda that pours out of the Middle East especially in regard to the Israel and Palestine conflict. [8]

Table 6YesNo
Were you born in Australia?5842

Table 7
How would you best describe your ancestry?%
Lebanese38
Pakistani11
Indonesian10
Iraqi7
Egyptian5
28 other ancestriesEach less than 4%

Table 8YesNo
Is English the main language you speak at home?4357

Conclusion

As this report concludes, polite and civilised policing can do a lot to encourage Muslim citizens to support Australia's counter-terrorism laws and measures. It might be added this is true for all citizens who probably believe polite and civilised policing should be the norm for everyone.

It does not address the bigger barrier to support and co-operation for counter-terrorism laws and measures. A substantial proportion of Australian Muslims out of ignorance of history, cultural baggage, and their religious beliefs, in their hearts or in their heads, don't agree with them.

Notes

[1] "Avoiding Community Backlash in the fight against terrorism: Research report" March 2015: Kristina Murphy, School of Criminology & Criminal Justice, Griffith University; Adrian Cherney, School of Social Sciences, The University of Queensland; Julie Barkworth, School of Criminology & Criminal Justice, Griffith University. Available here.

Media coverage: The Guardian (UK); The Conversation; Islam Today.

[2] The focus groups were carried out between October 2013 and September 2014 and the survey between 17th of June and the 9th of August 2014

[3] The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) at the University of Maryland. See here.

[4] Amnesty International UK - Saudi Arabia, Free Raif Badawi. See here.

[5] Knowledge of earlier history is relevant. What do Australian Muslims know of the centuries of failure of Islamic government to make political, economic or social progress that culminated in the Caliphate's declaration of war on Britain and her allies in 1914? The foundations and divisions of the Middle East we know today were laid during those centuries of backwardness.

Do they know who abolished the Caliphate, the act that so exercised bin Laden? And, what do Australian Muslims make of Anzac day?

[6] "Islamic State is a plot by Western countries, Victoria's Al-Taqwa College principal tells students". Media coverage: The Age; Brisbane Times; 3AW.

[7] The survey consisted of four sections. Section 1 collected data on the demographic background of the respondents. Section 2 assessed how Muslims in Australia see themselves in society and how they believe others in society view them. Sections 3 and 4 covered Muslims’ attitudes toward the police and the policing of terrorism. Only sections 1 and 2 are summarised here.

[8] "Corrupting the land". Imad Hamato, Professor of Quranic Studies, University of Palestine in Gaza, and the host ‎of a weekly PA TV program on Islam. See here.

01 April 2015

Responses to recent YouGov poll on Islam and British values

A recent YouGov poll finds that 55% of British voters (based on a sample of 1641 adults) believe that "There is a fundamental clash between Islam and the values of British society"

The poll appears to have received little media attention – but here’s one comment on its findings:

The poll seems to reflect public concerns about so called “Muslim extremism” which may have been exacerbated by hostile media coverage and a plethora of government statements and policies over tackling radicalisation. [Harry’s Place] Read more

Islam and “British values” – do Brits believe them to be compatible?

.... of the 1641 adults polled by YouGov, only 22% said they felt “Islam is generally compatible with the values of British society”. Fifty five percent of people agreed with the statement “There is a fundamental clash between Islam and the values of British society”, while almost 25% didn’t adopt either statement or answered ‘don’t know’.

That is, more people opted not to offer a response to the statements than affirmed that “Islam is generally compatible with the values of British society”. And over half of those polled said they believed “There is a fundamental clash between Islam and the values of British society”.

The data broken down by party affiliation shows that UKIP supporters are most likely to believe in the clash of values between Islam and Britain (89%) and the Lib Dems least likely (38%) with the Conservatives taking second place after UKIP (68%) and Labour, third place (48%). [31 March, MEND] Read more

The majority of voters doubt that Islam is compatible with British values

.... A clear distinction must be made, Mrs May concluded, between followers of the Islamic faith, which is “entirely compatible” with British values, and extremists who claim there is a “fundamental incompatibility”. Hence the keystone of her new strategy is a proud promotion of “the values that unite us”.

Except they don’t unite us, according to a majority of the British public. As a recent survey by the YouGov-Cambridge Programme shows, a striking 55 per cent of British voters currently think “there is a fundamental clash between Islam and the values of British society”, compared with just 22 per cent – little over one in five – who say Islam and British values are “generally compatible”.

Among Tory supporters, this gap increases to 68 per cent who say “clash” versus 17 per cent who think “compatible”. Ukip supporters look almost unanimous on the issue (89 per cent “clash” versus 4 per cent “compatible”) while roughly half of Labour supporters take the negative view (48 per cent “clash” versus 27 per cent “compatible”) and Lib Dems are divided (38 per cent “clash” versus 39 per cent “compatible). [30 March, The Telegraph] Read more